TCXDVN 296:2004



(mandatory to apply)
1. Scope of application of construction standards on scaffolding

This standard specifies requirements for safety when erecting, using, maintaining and dismantling scaffolding in construction, repair and demolition of houses and works.

This construction standard does not apply to permanently suspended scaffolding systems or free-hanging working platforms in space.

2. Reference standards
  • Vietnam Construction Code, Chapter 17
  • TCVN 5308-1991. Technical regulations on safety in construction
  • TCVN 6052-1995. Steel scaffolding.
3. Terms – concepts

3.1. Pre-fabricated scaffolding table: Pre-fabricated table-top working platform unit, with fastening hooks with horizontal bars of the scaffolding.

3.2. Scaffolding: A temporary structural system placed on a stable foundation or can be suspended or anchored, leaning on a building to create a workplace for workers at high positions above the ground or a fixed floor.

3.3. Column scaffolding and mobile cantilever racks: The scaffolding system has vertical pillars, floor boards and working platform supports that can be moved on vertical pillars.

3.4. Cantilever beam scaffolding: Scaffolding with working floor placed on cantilever beams from inside the wall or on the house surface. The inner end is firmly anchored to the building or structure.

3.5. Scaffolding of suspended girders: The working floor is placed on two beams, suspended by cables.

3.6. Scaffolding with square feet: Scaffolding with support legs is square wooden frames, on the support of the working floor to bear light and medium loads.

3.7. Scaffolding for independent columns: Scaffolding is placed on the foundation with many columns and rows of frames. This type of spear stands independently, not leaning on the building, including supporting columns, longitudinal beams, horizontal beams and diagonal braces.

3.8. Single-pillar scaffolding: Working floor is placed on horizontal beams with outer ends placed on longitudinal beams connected to columns or single vertical bars. The inner end of the crossbeam places the anchor in or on the wall of the house.

3.9. Scaffolding system of scaffolding system of workers’ rulers: Scaffolding consists of wooden or metal frames supporting the working floor.

3.10. Scaffolding type ladder mounted cantilever: Scaffolding under light load, working floor is placed on cantilever beams linked with independent or extended ladders.

3.11. Hand-push mobile scaffold: Scaffolding is placed on wheels and moves only when pushed or pulled.

3.12. Prefabricated tubular steel frame scaffolding: A system of metal pipe frames (spike legs), assembled together by braces.

3.13. Scaffolding with horse legs: Scaffolding with light or medium loads, including legs supporting the working floor.

3.14. Scaffolding and a combination of tubular steel scaffolding and connectors: The scaffolding system is made up of tubular steel bars such as vertical pillars, horizontal and vertical bars of the scaffolding and braces; with foot support for the posts and special connectors for connecting the posts and connecting other rods.

3.15. Scaffolding suspended in series: The working floor is placed and hooked to two horizontal parallel steel cables, the ends of the wires are closely linked to the building.

3.16. Multi-point suspended scaffolding: Scaffolding is supported by many cables hanging from the supports above and is installed and operated when raising or lowering the working platform to the required positions.

3.17. Multi-storey suspended scaffolding: Scaffolding has working floors at different heights, placed on the same support system. This system can be suspended by two or more points.

3.18. Safety belt: Soft rope tied to a belt around the back of a person or work tool, the end is tied to a fixed point or a safety belt.

3.19. Safety rope (escape rope, lifeline): Vertical rope from a fixed anchor hook independent of the working platform and anchor lines, used to hang or hook safety ropes.

3.20. Waist belt: A special tool worn on the body, used to hang or escape for workers while working or in dangerous areas.

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3.21. Working platform unit: The smallest working platform can be operated independently or assembled into a larger working platform. Working floor units can be special planks, scaffolding or prefabricated metal floors.

3.22. Railing: The barrier system is installed along the open sides and the end of the working platform, including the upper bar (handrail), the middle bar and the supporting pillars.

3.23. Safety screen: A screen placed between the handrail and footrail, to prevent work tools or materials from falling off the scaffold.

3.24. Scaffolding foundation: Ground or solid floor foundation of floors and buildings.

3.25. Anchor: The link between the scaffolding and the building or structure, to enhance the two-way stability of the scaffolding.

3.26. Rear anchor: Link from a building or structure to a lifting device.

3.27. Working platform: Floor for workers to stand and stack materials at required positions, made up of one or more units of working floor.

3.28. Working load: The load includes people, materials and equipment on the scaffolding.

3.29. Maximum calculated load: Total load of the scaffolding itself, people, equipment, tools, materials and other impacts on the scaffolding.

3.30. Bracing bar: Fixed holder for scaffolding, contact with other parts.

3.31. Lifting device: A device used to raise or lower a suspended scaffolding system. It can be operated manually or by motor (machine).

3.32. Prefabricated boards or floors: Work planes created from solid or perforated wood, metal or new materials.

4. General requirements for types of scaffolding applied to construction standards
4.1. General part

4.1.1. Types of scaffolding used in construction must meet the requirements for design, structure, erection, operation, dismantling stated in the manufacturer’s technical documents and passport. Do not erect, use or dismantle the type of scaffolding that does not meet the above documents.

4.1.2. Components used to install scaffolding must conform to technical documents and the provisions of this standard, ensuring the requirements of strength, size and weight. Scaffolding must be designed and erected enough to withstand the safety load according to the design load.

4.1.3. Workers erecting and dismantling scaffolding must be trained and must comply with the requirements of the process and be fully equipped with labor protection equipment.

4.1.4. Scaffolding must not be used in the following cases:
  • Failure to meet the technical requirements and occupational safety conditions specified in the design documents or in the manufacturer’s passport;
  • Incorrect function according to each type of work;
  • Scaffolding parts are deformed, cracked, corroded
  • The distance from the working boundary edge of the scaffolding, the support to the adjacent edge of the means of transport is less than 0.60m;
  • Columns or scaffolding frames placed on unstable ground (soft ground, poor drainage, settlement beyond the allowable limit of the design…) are likely to slip or be placed on parts or structures that are not included in the calculation. The calculation ensures stable bearing for the component itself, the structure and for the scaffolding column and supporting frame.

4.1.5. Do not load on the scaffolding beyond the calculated load. If prefabricated scaffolding is used, the manufacturer’s instructions must be followed.

4.1.6. Scaffolding is not allowed to move horizontally or change the structure of the scaffolding system while in use, except for scaffoldings specially designed to be used for the above requirement.

4.1.7. Do not erect, dismantle or work on scaffolding when the weather is bad, such as thunderstorms, dark skies, strong ghosts, strong winds of level 5 or higher.

4.1.8. Scaffolding and accessories must not be used where corrosive chemicals are present and appropriate protective measures must be taken to prevent the scaffolding from being damaged as directed by the manufacturer.

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4.1.10. Scaffolding dismantling must be carried out according to the instructions of the designer or manufacturer and starting from the top of the scaffolding:
  • Disassembled parts and links must descend safely, without free fall. The stability of the undismantled scaffolding must be maintained until the dismantling is complete.
  • In the area being dismantled, there must be barriers and signs prohibiting people and vehicles from passing. Do not dismantle scaffolding by tearing it down.

4.1.11. When erecting, using or dismantling scaffolding near power transmission lines (under 5m, including low voltage lines), it is necessary to take measures to ensure electrical safety for workers and must be approved by the agency. power and line management (cutting off power when erecting, shielding nets …)

4.2. Scaffolding support system

4.2.1. The legs of the scaffolding must be firm and capable of withstanding the largest calculated load. Non-durable objects, such as crates, cardboard boxes, rubble or freestanding blocks, should not be used as spear stands.

4.2.2. Columns, poles or vertical bars of scaffolding must be placed vertically as well as braced, tightly connected to the foundation to prevent rotation and displacement.

4.2.3. When ropes, synthetic ropes or steel cables are used in work involving corrosive chemicals or corrosive atmospheres, remedial measures must be taken to prevent damage to the aforementioned substances.

4.2.4. All cables used to hang scaffolding must be capable of bearing at least six times the design load.

4.3. payload requirements.

4.3.1. Scaffolding must be capable of bearing without damage by its own load and at least four times the calculated load. Particularly for the safety railing system, the cable car and the wooden components are applied according to individual requirements.

4.3.2. Load level: The largest loads are classified as follows:
  • Heavy load: applied to scaffolding with working load of 375Kg/m2 used for brick and stone construction, and materials placed on the working floor.
  • Medium load: applied to scaffolding carrying a working load of 250Kg/m2 used for people and plastering mortar.
  • Light load: applicable to scaffolding carrying a working load of 125Kg/m2 for people and working tools.
  • Special load: applicable to scaffolding carrying special loads and accompanying materials.

4.3.3. Classification of loads for the working platform unit on human load:;Design load for the working platform is calculated on a one-to-one basis; or more than one person weighing 75 Kg and 25 Kg tools per person . Each working floor unit must be able to support at least one person according to the following regulations:
  • Working floor for one person is designed and installed enough to support a load of 100 Kg placed in the middle of the floor;
  • The working floor for two people is designed and installed to be capable of supporting a working load of 200 Kg; in which 100 Kg is placed 0.45 m to the left; and 100 Kg is placed 0.45 m to the right of the straight line in the middle of the working floor.
  • Working platform for three people is designed; and the installation is capable of supporting a working load of 300 Kg; in which 100 Kg is placed 0.45 m to the left; 100 Kg is placed in the middle; and 100 Kg is placed at a distance of 0.45 m to the right of the straight line in the middle of the working floor. Distributed load requirements: each working platform unit at the appropriate location; shall be designed and erected to carry loads distributed alternately with human loads according to Distributed load and uncalculated human load acting simultaneously; but it is necessary to use the minimum combination to design the appropriate working platform.

4.4. Requirements on working floor (Figure 1-7, Appendix B)

4.4.1. The working floor must be firm, ensuring to withstand the calculated load. The material selected for flooring must have sufficient strength, meet the actual requirements; not chemically corrosive and resistant to atmospheric cavitation.

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Note: Prefabricated planks and platforms include; timber framed boards, scaffolding boards and shaped beam floors.

4.4.2. The working platform (unless it is braced or firmly anchored) must be long enough to pass the horizontal support bar; at both ends a segment not less than 0.15m and not more than 0.5m.

4.4.3. Wood planks:
  • The wooden planks must be designed so that the deflection is in the middle of the span; according to the calculated load does not exceed 1/60th of the span of the scaffolding.
  • The largest span of a wooden plank is specified according to the design; and as a manufacturer on the basis of calculating the reliability for wooden flooring.
  • Wood planks need to be used in high places with good air circulation. If the board used is still loose or in humid conditions, the stress calculation; and test according to 4.4.3.a) shall take into account the moisture content of the wood.

4.4.4. Prefabricated scaffolding boards, boards and floors, including: prefabricated spear tables; prefabricated boards; wooden planks with a frame; planks with beams and profiled beam floors. Pre-fabricated scaffolding table: The minimum width of the scaffolding table is not less than 0.3 m; Standard length from 1.8m to 3.0m. Length and width of prefabricated boards and working platforms as specified in table

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