Kỹ thuật thi công chống thấm nhà vệ sinh

  1. The importance of waterproofing the toilet

    Many people ignore toilet waterproofing because they do not realize the importance of this work. Remember, waterproofing the toilet is a very important step, determining the aesthetics, quality and sustainability of the project.
    First of all, the characteristic of the toilet is a high humidity environment, often in contact with water and chemicals, so if it is not waterproofed from the beginning, during use, the toilet will quickly become wet. , mold and cracks. In the long term, this situation will lead to many consequences such as ceiling seepage, wall seepage, floor seepage… At this time, the entire structure of the house is affected and degraded rapidly.
    To fix and improve this leak situation, you have to spend a small amount of money. Not to mention the very complicated repair process, having to dismantle all toilet equipment, bathtubs, sinks, perforated floors, perforated walls, etc. members in family. If after a while this phenomenon occurs, it can also be repaired by waterproofing methods, but as mentioned, it will take time.
    Therefore, right from the start, waterproofing for the toilet should be taken seriously and put on top to ensure the durability of the building as well as save time and repair costs later.

    Construction of toilet waterproofing by using a 3mm or 4mm . thick torch film


    1. Advantages

    • Fast construction
    • Low cost, suitable for many families

    2. Disadvantages

    • The life of the waterproofing layer is short.
    • The waterproof membrane is not continuous, cut into pieces at the connections with the floor drains and technical boxes.
    • Factors such as water, poor drying techniques lead to the hybrid border between the overlapping membranes often being opened or later separated.
    • The bitumen membrane and other concrete layers should be separated, water from leaking pipes or water seeping from the base of the wall through the membrane will cause seepage. The membrane is no longer active.
    • Due to the dependence on both workmanship, membrane quality and other influences, this method has a very high risk of re-permeation.

    3. Principle of waterproofing

    The principle of this method of construction is to clean the surface of the toilet floor, then apply a bitumen-based Primer primer and dry it directly to allow the liquid bitumen to penetrate evenly into the floor and then roll the waterproofing membrane. Finally, put a layer of sand cement to protect the membrane.

    4. Steps to waterproof the toilet using a hard-to-heat membrane

    Step 1: Prepare the construction surface:

    • Clean, clean the construction surface to remove dirt and impurities.
    • The protrusions should be leveled and cleaned with admixtures

    Step 2: Use a gas torch to heat the floor before applying waterproofing.
    Step 3: Apply bitumen-based Primer on the floor.
    Step 4: Use a torch to burn directly on the surface of the sheet for the bitumen to melt evenly and then stick to the floor. Burn the bitumen to where it flows, then roll the waterproofing membrane there.
    Step 5: At the neck of the water pipe must be glued carefully inside and outside the mouth of the pipe to avoid water seeping around the neck of the pipe. For the best protection, it is recommended to use an expansion gasket wrapped around to prevent water leakage.
    Step 6: At the base of the wall, lift up 15-20 cm so that the contiguous position between the floor and the wall is tight, limiting the risk of creating gaps and cracks causing leakage. The hose necks are sealed inside and out, it’s best to wrap the expansion gasket around
    Step 7: After the construction is complete, apply a layer of cement sand on top to protect the waterproof membrane, return the ground.

    Construction of waterproofing toilets with chemicals

    1. Waterproofing the toilet with waterproof paint Water Seal

    Materials used:

    • Water Seal solution (Imported from the UK): It is a Silane and Siloxane polymer based liquid waterproofing solution that penetrates into concrete to help concrete form a gel that seals small cracks (< 0.2). mm) helps to solidify the concrete, and at the same time effectively waterproof and prevent water, this is the most effective waterproofing method available today
    • Master Seal 540 two-component membrane waterproofing agent (imported from Germany).
    • Fiber Glass reinforced glass mesh, elastic, good elasticity, extremely effective anti-cracking.
    • Sika Latex waterproofing additive.
    • Sikaflex Constructions Pipe Neck Sealant.
    • Grout self-leveling mortar without shrinkage, used to fill pipe necks.

    Advantages and disadvantages of the method:
    – Advantages:

    • This is the best waterproofing method available today.
    • Penetrates deep into concrete, mortar and brick making it very durable.
    • All positions of technical boxes, floor drain pipes, baseboards, toilet floors are treated with high elastic Master Seal membrane material that can withstand cracks of concrete floors from 1 – 2 mm.
    • Withstands other mechanical impacts on the floor without affecting the waterproofing layer.
    • Seals all small cracks of the toilet floor, helping to solidify the concrete.
    • The waterproofing layer is monolithic with the concrete, so there is no separation of layers.
    • Creates a sealed, continuous waterproof layer with the surface.
    • Prevents the infiltration or penetration of water.
    • The waterproofing life of the toilet floor is guaranteed from 15-20 years.

    – Defect:
    This method has a longer time than other methods, there are 4 layers of waterproofing, so each stage must take time for the material to dry before it can be transferred to another layer.
    Steps of waterproofing construction:
    Step 1: Prepare the construction surface:

    • Remove dirt, excess grout, impurities on the surface. Hit and blow away dust, chisel and erase protrusions.
    • Surface must be flat, hard, clean, repair any pitted areas.
    • Large cracks must be filled with an additive repair mortar.

    Step 2: Waterproofing the neck of the floor drain: use a machine to chisel the neck of the pipe 2-3 cm from the pipe, chisel lightly in the shape of a V, blow off dirt and clean the neck of the pipe. Then use foam or paper to insert under the neck of the pipe to pour the mortar without melting. After sealing the pipe neck, we mix Grout mortar and proceed to pour grout into the neck of the sealed floor drain pipe, pour the mortar so that it is about 2-3 cm from the concrete floor surface, then stop. After the Grout is dry, continue to fill the pipe neck with Sikaflex constructions sealant.
    Step 3: Mix the Sika Latex with cement and sweep the oil paste on the floor and the base of the wall, then strip the Fiber Glass mesh on top. After 2 hours, continue to mix Sika Latex with a slightly viscous cement-oil mortar and then roll it onto the meshed surface.
    Step 4: After 10-12 hours, shake well and then spray Water Seal waterproofing solution on the surface of the concrete floor and toilet wall, from the base of the wall to about 40-50 cm. After 2-3 hours continue to spray the second layer. With the norm of 1 liter / 5m2.
    Step 5: After spraying Water Seal 4 -5 hours, continue to mix well and apply 02 layers of Master Seal 540 on the entire surface of the concrete floor, wall, technical box that has been meshed. Scan so that the back layer is perpendicular to the previous layer. When the Master Seal 540 waterproofing membrane is dry (from 10 to 12 hours), mix latex mortar with oil-based cement on the top surface to protect the waterproofing layer.
    Step 6: After 12 hours of complete waterproofing, spray soak in water for 24 hours and then test it

    2. Waterproofing the toilet with 2-component sika Viet My chemicals

    Advantages :

    • Easy to scan
    • No need to add water
    • Quick mix,
    • Sticking tight,
    • Prevent water from seeping through

    Materials to use:

    • Sikatop Seal 107 waterproof and elastic mortar (this is a mortar consisting of 5kg of component A in black liquid and 20kg of component B in gray powder)
    • 01 clean box
    • Paint stirrer
    • Paintbrush, roller brush, trowel
    • Iron brush or wall scrubber
    • Plastic cups or water sprayers, humidifiers
    • Blower or vacuum cleaner

    Steps to perform the construction of toilet waterproofing using sika . chemicals
    Step 1: Prepare the construction surface

    • Clean the surface before application with a wire brush, hand blower or industrial vacuum cleaner.
    • Moisten the surface by watering, using a pressure washer or a humidifier to wash the saturated concrete surface

    Step 2: Mix Sika top Seal 107 . waterproof mortar

    • Pour component A into a clean container
    • Slowly add Component B Sika top Seal 107 waterproofing mortar to component A at the ratio of 1kg of component A: 4kg of component B.
    • Stir until the mixture forms a homogeneous mass with a smooth consistency

    Step 3: Apply layer 1
    Use a roller brush or paint brush to slowly roll the mixture of waterproof mortar mixed at the stage on the wall and floor of the toilet with the rate of 2kg/m2/layer.
    Note: Only apply in one direction from the bottom up to both save materials and have an even layer.
    Step 4: Apply 2nd layer
    The second coat is applied 3-4 hours after the first coat, depending on the outdoor temperature (this is when the first coat of paint has dried but not completely hardened).
    Note: When working on the toilet floor, you can change the brush to fly.
    Step 5: Finish the product
    After the second coat is completely dry use a sponge to clean and smooth the surface
    The way to apply waterproofing with sika will be more effective if you use the following tips: After the application is complete, use plastic, wet sacks or a continuous humidifier to prevent the waterproofing material from drying quickly. Because the longer the material dries, the better the quality and waterproofing will be.

    Construction of toilet waterproofing by the method of using cement-based crystallization chemicals combined with cement-based elastic membranes

    Materials used

    • Hawa Seal B01: Cement-based crystalline waterproofing agent, which penetrates into concrete to help concrete not crack, solid, and effectively waterproof.
    • Cement-based membrane SBR 003 (or German Materseal 540 cement film): Creates a cement-based film that adheres uniformly to concrete, extremely effective and long-lasting waterproofing.

    Construction process

    • Moisten the surface before applying, Apply waterproofing chemical to the entire construction surface.
    • For opaque pipes with a width of 20 – 30 mm, pour non-shrink Sikagrout 214 -11 mortar, then fill the surface with Sikaflex Construction, the purpose is to not separate the plastic pipe neck from the concrete floor in the future. .
    • Apply Hawa Seal B01 crystalline waterproofing agent from 1 – 1.5 Kg/m2 to the entire floor surface and toilet foot. Apply 2 layers from 2h to 3h apart, sweep the second layer in the direction perpendicular to the first layer on the surface to be applied.
    • Apply 2-3 layers of cement-based elastic membrane with the rate of 2 – 2.5 Kg/m2 on the entire floor surface. The previous layer is 3 – 4 hours away from the next layer, construction is perpendicular.


    • After the material is dry, usually after 12 hours, soak in the water to test it. Soak in water for 24 hours.

    Advantages and disadvantages of the construction method of waterproofing the toilet by the combined method

    • Cement-based crystalline chemicals help concrete not to crack, increase the waterproofing ability, durability of concrete.
    • The cement-based elastic membrane provides a durable water barrier and can withstand certain shrinking and cracking of concrete.
    • The film forming chemical layer adheres tightly to the concrete into a block, so there is no fear of delamination.
    • Creates a continuous, non-separating waterproof layer
    • Waterproof durability from 20 – 30 years (95% of high-rise buildings, high-class villas use this method).
    • Requires meticulous construction, from mixing chemicals to the right ratio to sweeping and handling chemicals on the floor.
    • The construction and maintenance time is longer, usually a construction toilet floor ensures the stages from 6-8 hours. The curing time is from 1 to 2 hours.

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